"Track designs have incorporated enhancements to guide and guard rails, which keep a derailed train moving upright, along the right of way, keeping it from going off bridges, down hills and away from trains on other tracks or bridge abutments and walls. Brackets have been added to high-speed train wheel sets in Japan to keep a derailed train on the track, reducing the probability significant casualties in an accidental or intentional derailment."
Security for surface transportation must comprise the entire spectrum of measures from deterrence and detection to mitigation and emergency response. Aviation security is "front-loaded," that is, it aims at prevention. Surface transportation security cannot be front-loaded, but there is much that can be done to mitigate casualties and to save lives after an attack, as well as minimizing damage and expediting recovery process, explains Jenkins.
"Protecting public places that, by their very nature, require easy access is difficult and costly. To be worthwhile, security must provide a net security benefit," he says. "The result cannot be a mere diversion of the attack to another accessible public place where the attacker can achieve the same results in casualties."
Jenkins warns however that we need to be realistic about security. "One hundred percent security in surface transportation is not possible. Some risk is unavoidable, just as when we drive our automobiles, but the risk to individual citizens from terrorism is minuscule."